Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Crucible Act 3 Character Analysis Essay - 714 Words

Giles Corey is an elderly citizen of Salem. He is a sincere, well-intentioned, though occasionally cranky, old farmer. He is very blunt and straightforward in his thinking and opinions. Corey is known to be on good terms with John Proctor and Francis Nurse. He is famous for his tendency to file lawsuits. His wife Martha Corey is accused of witchcraft, and he himself is accused and accounted for witchcraft and is later on pressed to death with large stones. Elizabeth Proctor is the wife of John Proctor. She discovered an affair going on between her husband and Abigail Williams and turned Abigail out of her house. Elizabeth is Abigail’s number one target but is saved from hanging because of her pregnancy. She believed that she was the†¦show more content†¦She is not strong enough to fight Abigail and as soon as Abigail leads the other girls against her, Mary caves and runs back to her side by accusing Proctor himself. Abigail Williams is the orphaned niece of Reverend Parris. She is an intelligent, resourceful, and a highly mischievous girl of only seventeen years old. Abigail is the natural leader of the other girls in Salem. She instigates the witch trials by falsely accusing others of witchcraft. She pretends to see spirits and instructs the other girls to pretend as well. Abigail is also infatuated with John Proctor and she’s devoted to take his wife Elizabeth’s place. She is extremely jealous of Elizabeth Proctor and uses her power in the town to rid herself from Elizabeth as well as any others who have insulted her in the past. John Proctor is a young, upright, outspoken, successful farmer in Salem. He loves and respects his wife and is sorry for the act of adultery he has committed with Abigail Williams, his former servant. He resents the greediness and moral attitude of Reverend Parris and, therefore, invites his irritation and suspicion. John hates hypocrisy. When the hysteria begins, he hesitates to expose Abigail as a fraud because he worries that his secret will be revealed and his good name would be ruined. Abigail uses her influence to convict his wife; he tries to tell the truth and finds himself convicted of witchcraft himself. Reverend John Hale is a minister from a nearby town of Beverly whoShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of The Crucible 1296 Words   |  6 PagesCrucible Character Analysis Miah Nielsen The strength of a dying man can be found in the words, â€Å"Give them no tear! Tears pleasure them! Show honor now, show a stony heart and sink them with it!† (The Crucible, 4. 751-753). This quote is spoken directly from Elizabeth Proctor after her husband was condemning himself to hanging. This married couple faced major conflicts during this historical event in which The Crucible took place. The setting took place during the Salem Witch Trials, which was aRead MoreAnalysis Of Warren G. Bennis And Robert J. Thomas802 Words   |  4 Pagespublic-sector, that all of them had endured traumatic experiences (cruciblesâ€â€") that transformed them by forcing them to question who they were and what was important or gave them new insight into the people and organizations they were trying to lead. The authors believe that there are four essential skills associated with this capacity to learn from experience: 1) ability to engage others in shared meaning; 2) a distinctive and com pelling voice; 3) a sense of integrity; and 4) adaptive capacity. Having aRead MoreCharacter Analysis Of Elizabeth Proctor In The Crucible825 Words   |  4 PagesIII A/H 28 November 2017 Character Analysis of Elizabeth Proctor In 1692, many people in Salem, Massachusetts confessed to witchcraft, which resulted in several conflicts. The Crucible, by Arthur Miller, uses real events to develop a fictional play. One of the characters in the play is Elizabeth Proctor. She is a static character because she undergoes very little changes throughout the play. The author illustrates the theme of reputation through Elizabeth. Her character shows traits of strengthRead MoreSalem Witch Trials and Thesis Statement2226 Words   |  9 Pagesï » ¿The Crucible Essay Assignment For your essay on The Crucible, please write a five paragraph, analytical essay in which you respond to one of the following prompts. 1. Although The Crucible revolves around the Salem Witch Trials, it allows readers to examine many themes. Choose a theme from The Crucible and discuss how it is developed throughout the play. How does this theme reveal the play’s deeper meaning? 2. The Crucible is a play of conflicts. Analyze a major conflict from The CrucibleRead MoreThe Crucibles Literary Analysis963 Words   |  4 Pages2013 â€Å"The Crucibles† Literary Analysis In the Drama â€Å"The Crucibles† by Arthur Miller, creates an intensifying and motivating situation that keeps readers on their toes eager to find out what happens next. Miller gives a dramatical attitude and emotion in the situation that is scattering in Salem. Miller emphasizes the plot/situation in the text through a few specific characters, their conflicts, and transition of the plot in every act. Miller describes the plot through 3 main characters; John ProctorRead MoreThe Scarlett Letter, And The Crucible986 Words   |  4 Pagesfictitious stories. Though the characters and the story are fiction, this lifestyle and rule was far from fiction. It is even believed that even though Hester Prynne was fictitious there was a similar scandal that Hawthorne was referring to. The life of the Puritans has been a subject of interest for years, with works of literature such as The Scarlett Letter, and the Crucible that depict this time period of extreme conservatism and harsh puni shment. After further analysis and research it has come toRead MoreThe Crucible; Belonging and Identity. Pans Labyrinth and the Company of Wolves as Related Texts1999 Words   |  8 PagesThe Crucible Discussion Notes. One’s belonging will always be entrenched in the ‘belonging’ established by another group; regardless of whether or not you wish to be a part of such a group. That is to say, even if it is your aim to find your sense of belonging totally outside of another group, the course of action required to achieve this belonging through not belonging will be influenced by the sense of belonging established by the group; in your wish to contrast that belonging. A less convolutedRead MoreFeminist Approach to Witchcraft; Case Study: Millers the Crucible6554 Words   |  27 PagesTitle: Re(dis)covering the Witches in Arthur Millers The Crucible: A Feminist Reading Author(s): Wendy Schissel Publication Details: Modern Drama 37.3 (Fall 1994): p461-473. Source: Drama Criticism. Vol. 31. Detroit: Gale. From Literature Resource Center. Document Type: Critical essay Bookmark: Bookmark this Document Full Text: COPYRIGHT 2008 Gale, Cengage Learning Title Re(dis)covering the Witches in Arthur Millers The Crucible: A Feminist Reading [(essay date fall 1994) In the followingRead MoreHumanities Test4641 Words   |  19 Pagesfamous speech by Shakespeares Falstaff questions the value of: honor 1.   ( T or F ) Aristotle considered plot more important than character or thought. True 2.   ( T or F ) Aristotle was both a theater critic and a philosopher. True 3.   Aristotles famous analysis of tragedy is found in a work called: The Poetics 4.   Aristotles work on comedy is how long? 5 acts long 5. What did the Commedia dellearte specialize in? 6.   What is satire? a literary genre or form, although in practiceRead MoreMedia Magic Making Class Invisible2198 Words   |  9 Pagesand upper classes as well. Add Project New English essays Much Ado About Gender Roles (15 August) Report regarding a proposed amendment of certain sections of th (13 August) Community Influence In Literature (18 July) Ode To A Urn Detailed Analysis (17 June) Occurrence At Owl Creek Bridge (14 June) Newburgh (14 June) Countee Cullen: A Reniassance Man (14 June) Death In The Hours (14 June) Antigone (14 June) The Art Of Persuasion (14 June) Compare And Contrast (13 June) Sonnys

Monday, May 18, 2020

The Decision Of The European Central Bank - 2496 Words

It is necessary to look at the state of the Eurozone economy in order to properly analyse the decision of the European Central Bank (ECB) on September the 4th to cut its benchmark interest rate to 0.05%, and to launch an asset purchase program to buy debt products from the banks at the same time. Since the collapse of Lehman in 2008 and the global crisis that followed, the Eurozone has been contracting significantly to the extent where â€Å"consumer price inflation in the Eurozone fell to 0.3% in September.† (BBC, 2014) The ECB’s reaction has been to reduce interest rates and make use of quantitative easing to try to generate economic growth, albeit without much success. In June 2014, when Mr. Draghi, the president of the ECB, announced its latest cuts to 0.15%, he stated that he couldn’t see the rates dropping below this level. And yet, merely a few months later, he announced a further drop to 0.05%, in what many considered to be a desperate attempt to help pul l the Eurozone out of deep crisis. The example of Japan’s 20-year struggle with deflation and a contracting economy was the driving force that pushed the ECB to take this drastic measure. Therefore, it is important to analyse and evaluate the decision of the ECB, set in the context of the current European economic situation, and the alternative policies that could be used. The introduction of expansionary monetary policy can have many impacts on an economy. One such impact is to stimulate consumer spending and levels ofShow MoreRelatedThe Euro in Crisis: Decision Time at the European Central Bank841 Words   |  4 Pagesin Crisis: Decision Time at the European Central Bank LaRisha Baker Professor: Tom DiCorcia November 30th, 2014 Introduction The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank for Europes single currency, the euro. Its main task is to maintain the euros purchasing power and maintain price stability in the euro area. The euro area comprises of 18 European Union (EU) countries, of which Greece is included (European Central Bank, n.d.). As the EBC holds extraordinary decision-making powerRead MoreThe Euro in Crisis: Decision Time at the European Central Bank2183 Words   |  9 Pagesâ€Å"The Role of the European Central Bank in the Financial Crash and the Crisis of the Euro-Zone† Report based on a WEED Expert Meeting Franziska Richter Peter Wahl 1 Imprint: Richter Franziska, Wahl, Peter: The Role of the European Central Bank in the Financial Crash and the Crisis of the Euro-Zone. Report based on a WEED Expert Meeting Published by: WEED - World Economics, Environment Development Assoc. Eldenaer Straße 60 D-10247 Berlin 2011 All rights reserved This publication hasRead MoreThe United States And The Euro Area1410 Words   |  6 PagesThe United States and the euro area are the top two largest economies in the world. This paper is a brief comparison of the central banking systems of the two economies. The paper starts by introducing historical background for the two central banking systems to be established. It then continues to analysis similarities and differences between two central bank system’s organizational structures. Moreover, the paper will also compare monetary policy frameworks of the two systems in terms of monetaryRead MoreThe Federal Reserve System And Central Banking System1592 Words   |  7 Pagesworld, the two largest central banks are the Federal Reserve (Fed) and the European Central Bank (ECB). There are many things that make these two entities similar and many things that make them different. Both are effective in their own ways, but which one is more effective. Is one superior than the other? Which central banking entity is more accountable? Looking at the structure of these entities will only help us answer the questions. When it comes down to it, which central banking system would youRead MoreThe Federal Reserve House The Board Of Governors913 Words   |  4 PagesThe Federal System The Federal Reserve house the Board of Governors, The Federal Reserve Banks, The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC), and Advisory Committees. The Federal Reserve Bank is directed by the Board of Governors or Federal Reserve Board, which is located in Washington D.C. The Board of governors is the national aspect of the Federal Reserve System and consists of nine board of directors which are appointed by the President serve a fourteen year term. The Chairman and Vice ChairmanRead MoreMonetary Policy And Analysis Of Nash Equilibria1437 Words   |  6 PagesRecently, the president of European Central Bank (ECB), Mr Mario Draghi, announced that he is thinking of applying Quantitative Easing (QE) within the Eurozone. Assume that you are a member of the ECB board of governors. Introduction: This essay deals with the economic and financial aspects, why Mr Mario Draghi is willing to make use of Quantitative Easing, as well as pointing out the potential advantages and disadvantages of this monetary policy and analysis of Nash Equilibria. A1) In your viewRead MoreA Note On The Bailout Crisis1735 Words   |  7 Pagestime of panic, banks (commercial or central depending on the scale) must make a decision on whether or not they should save/bailout the company or economy. In many instances, especially when a country’s economy is about to collapse, other central banks are usually not seen to shy away from lending to the failing country, such as with the recent occurrence with Greece and its lenders. What these banks at often fail to realize, is that not everything is worth saving. Central banks are constantlyRead MoreEconomic and Monetary Union (Emu)1538 Words   |  7 PagesHistory In June 1988 the European Council confirmed the objective of the progressive realization of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). It mandated a committee chaired by Jacques Delors, the then President of the European Commission, to study and propose concrete stages leading to this union. Economic and monetary union evolved in three discrete but evolutionary steps. First step - On the basis of the Delors Report, the European Council decided in June 1989 that the first stage of the realisationRead MoreMonetary Policy For The Entire Euro Area1117 Words   |  5 PagesECB The European Central bank in Frankfurt, Germany defines the monetary policy for the entire Euro area. It is a single monetary authority with a single monetary policy and primary objective to maintain price stability. The ECB sets interest rates at which it lends to commercial banks in the Eurozone. This controls money supply and inflation. It manages the Eurozones foreign currency reserves and the buying or selling currencies to balance exchange rates. It ensures that financial markets and institutionsRead MoreThe Time Value Of Money Essay968 Words   |  4 Pagesinterest rates, the European Central Bank is driving them down. The decreasing interest rates have forced countries like Switzerland to offer negative yields on their bonds in order to keep their currency from increasing too far about their Eurozone (European nation) neighbors. However, this notion challenges the very fundamentals of investing in the bond market. Numerous countries throughout the Eurozone and Europe are al so seeing their yields turning negative. Whereas, various European countries’ rates

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Leadership Styles And Theories Of Leadership - 1570 Words

Leadership styles will vary in different situations for a coach. The same coach may have one style of leadership for different teams in the same sport depending on the players’ ages, nationalities, gender, and personalities (Weinberg Gould, 2015, p. 212-213). To recognize the consequences of leadership using Chelladurai’s model, the research to determine the type of leadership a coach should demonstrate for team satisfaction, should include satisfaction, cohesion, performance, and intrinsic motivation (Weinberg Gould, 2015, p. 213-214). There are five models of decision making in Chelladurai’s model. This paper will discuss different types of leadership, the consequences of the different situations, and Chelladurai’s models. LEADERSHIP Leadership is â€Å"the process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal (Weinberg Gould, 2015, p. 199).† The process of influence typically encompasses a number of behaviors that facilitate motivation in team members, where the coach focuses on getting team members to effectively work together in the pursuit of the common goal. There are a number of antecedents of leadership; personal and situational factors that affect leader behavior including age and maturity, gender, and the type of sport (Weinberg Gould, 2015, p. 212). A leader has to be able to adapt to the circumstances of each situation when working in a changing environment. As sports have new or unusual situations inShow MoreRelatedLeadership Styles And Theories Of Leadership857 Words   |  4 Pagesproject shows that leadership is defined in many ways. Characteristics of a good leader are questionable. Leadership styles and theories, such as servant leadership, collective leadership, and dictatorship vastly differ but still share similar attributes. While servant leadership and collective leadership theories similarly encompass specific attributes, the collective leadership theory still lacks vision and empowerment. Inversely, at the other extreme of leadership theories is dictatorship. UnlikeRead MoreLeadership Style And Leadership Theory807 Words   |  4 Pagesresearch conducted on traits, skills, and characters relationships to leadership and followers. The paper discusses the common themes and conclusions addressed in all studies . The articles penned with the intention of examining the impact leadership style and leadership theory in areas such as individual identity, culture, and worldview. Mahdi, Mohd, and Almsafir (2014) argue there is a significantly strong relationship between the leadership behavior and organizational commitment. Also, the paper synthesizesRead MoreLeadership Theories And Leadership Styles1512 Words   |  7 Pagesprovide examples surrounding various leadership theories and leadership styles that sustain the definition of a public leader. First, this paper will provide a definition of a public leader. Next, it determine two leadership theories and two leadership styles that support the definition of a public leader. Also, this paper will assess the effectiveness of the two leadership theories. Subsequently, it will assess the effectiveness of the two leadership styles. Further, this paper will utilize properRead MoreLeadership Styles And Theories Of Leadership Essay873 Words   |  4 PagesGenerally, leadership is the art or process of influencing followers and subordinates to achieve the organizational goals. It helps an individuals or a group to identify its goals and assists in achieving the stated goals. Because of importance of leadership all kinds of group action, there are considerable number of researches and theories on leadership and many kinds of leadership styles like Greatman theory, power influence, Trait approach, Behavioral, Situational or Contingency approaches;Read MoreLeadership Styles And Theories Of Leadership876 Words   |  4 Pagesbstract This paper is to define the definition of leadership, and how its breakdown of various leadership styles and theories. I will also focus on more than one leadership style on what is to believe the best aligns thoughts of what leadership should mean. The leadership style is a mixed character of leadership that combines the transformational and servant leadership theories in to Healthcare. An evaluation is made of the learner’s leadership characteristics and how they would enable the learnerRead MoreLeadership Styles And Leadership Theories993 Words   |  4 Pagesto the other two leadership styles, I scored next highest in the delegate category and the least amount in the authoritative category. In this paper I will give a comprehensive overview of leadership styles and leadership management theories and how they relate to my style. Lastly, I will discuss my type of work environment, and three key actions or behaviors that I must demonstrate to be a successful leader. Alignment with management and leadership theories Leadership theories include trait, attitudinalRead MoreLeadership Styles And Theories Of Leadership1386 Words   |  6 PagesLeadership is known as the process of guiding groups, individuals and an organization in the establishment of goals as well as sustaining those goals. The concept of leadership incorporates a diversity of clarifications, leadership styles and theories. While looking at the leaders around us no matter if it’s our president or place of employment, we often find ourselves questioning exactly why these individuals shine in these positions. This essay will detail my leadership in relations of the transformationalRead MoreLeadership Theories And Leadership Style920 Words   |  4 PagesLeadership theories and Leadership Style In workplace condition, there are numerous dynamics which may affects a manager’s leadership style. The most significant features which will affect the choice of leadership styles or leadership behavior in a workplace condition need to identify. The most important factor which affects the manager’s leadership style is ‘Task’. The task is the real purpose of the team as well as the goals of the team. A manager’s upmost duty is to be certain that all team membersRead MoreLeadership Styles And Theories Of Leadership2172 Words   |  9 PagesThere are many leadership styles and theories.   Effective leaders are required to possess problem-solving skills, maintain group effectiveness, be dynamic, passionate, and be a motivational influence on others.   There are two leadership approaches that are most popular.   They are Transactional leadership and Transformational leadership.   A transactional leader is the traditional â€Å"boss† image (Yoder-Wise, 2015).   In such work environment, employees have an understanding that the superiors make allRead MoreLeadership Theories Of Leadership Styles4638 Words   |  19 PagesLeadership theories The full spectrum of leadership styles is broad. The leadership styles continuum ranges from very directive to very non-directive: Autocratic, Benevolent Autocratic, Consultative, Participative, Consensus, and Laissez-Faire (Gibson, 1995). The autocratic leader an authority who make decisions or set goals and does not feel the need to explain them. The benevolent autocratic leader also rely on authority for decision-making, but may explain the thought process behind the decisions

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A Rose For Emily, by William Faulkner Essay examples

Both of the stories that will be compared in this paper, William Faulkners A Rose for Emily and Mary Shelleys Frankenstein, are very demented novels that contain central premises very estranged to most readers. Though Faulkners A Rose for Emily is a short story, the depth and description contained inside its brief text give it the ability to be compared to a novel such as Frankenstein; primarily its ability to explain the factors relating to Miss Emilys obsession for keeping her loved ones around after they have deceased. Similarly, in Shelleys Frankenstein, the evil and murderous nature of the beast created by Victor Frankenstein is well described in many angles and shows the prevalent need for the monster to make Victors life†¦show more content†¦247) Both of these quotes show the dark nature and description of the cryptic images while leaving much to the imagination. These cryptic images are also noticed in the usage of daunting setting such as the secluded house in Faulkners story and the castle in Shelleys. Both places of creation (Frankenstein) or decay (A Rose for Emily) reside in a more desolate or isolated setting than normal and provide a foreboding atmosphere. As Faulkner describes a decaying white house which was an eyesore among eyesores in a dwindling neighborhood, Shelley depicts a mansion which is overshadowed by a seemingly foretelling fog at the top of a hill in the countryside. The locations which these take place are used to create and ill-omened background for the stories but also give the means necessary to be able to procure a monster or a house desolate enough to be able to hide the decomposition of the bodies. These are key elements in the stories and should not be overlooked. Another key element in these stories is the use of a lifeless body as an ominous figure. In Frankenstein, Shelley says, With an anxiety that almost amounted to agony, I collected the instruments of life around me, that I might infuseShow MoreRelatedA Rose For Emily By William Faulkner923 Words   |  4 PagesA Rose for Emily; A Tale of The Old South William Faulkner was born in New Albany, Mississippi in 1897 but lived most of his life in Oxford, a small town nearby. After dropping out of high school then briefly joining the Canadian Air Force, he returned home and completed three terms at the University of Mississippi (Fulton 27). During his early twenties Faulkner spent time in New Orleans and Europe before returning to Oxford and publishing his first book of poems. In 1929 he married Estelle FranklinRead MoreA Rose For Emily By William Faulkner1729 Words   |  7 PagesJune 24, 2015 â€Å"A Rose for Emily† In every neighborhood there is always that one house that is a mystery to everyone. A house that everyone wants to know about, but nobody can seem to be able to dig up any answers. It’s the type of place that you would take any opportunity or excuse to get to explore. The littler that is known, the more the curiosity increases about this mysterious place or person. In the short story â€Å"A Rose for Emily† by William Faulkner, this mysterious person is Emily Grierson, andRead MoreA Rose For Emily By William Faulkner949 Words   |  4 PagesIn William Faulkner’s â€Å"A Rose for Emily† it is clear how Emily’s gender affects how the individuals in the town perceive her. Emily’s gender particularly affects how men understand her. Throughout the whole piece Emily is seen as a helpless individual who is lonely and has suffered losses throughout her life. When the reader reaches the end of the story the actions that Emily has taken is unexpected because of the way she is perceived by the narrator. In the beginning of the story, when the wholeRead MoreA Rose For Emily By William Faulkner1552 Words   |  7 PagesRyan Dunn Mrs. Williams English 11 March 11, 2016 In the short story â€Å"A Rose for Emily† by William Faulkner, the reader is given a glimpse of the internal conflict of the main character, living in the past, and the involvement of an over involved society causing the reader to look into the consciousness of an individual haunted by a past and lack of a future. The story is set in a post-Civil War town in the South. He is able to give the reader a glimpse of the practices and attitudes that had unitedRead MoreA Rose For Emily By William Faulkner1577 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"A Sarah Markins Dr. Bibby ENG 107 February 11, 2015 â€Å"A Rose for Emily† by William Faulkner â€Å"A Rose for Emily†, written by William Faulkner in 1931, follows a series of peculiar events in Miss Emily Griersons life. Written in third person limited, Faulkner utilizes flashbacks to tell of the period between the death of Emily’s father and her own passing. Split into five short sections, the story starts out with the townspeople of Jefferson remembering Emily’s legacy and how each new generation ofRead MoreA Rose For Emily By William Faulkner1507 Words   |  7 Pages1897, William Cuthbert Faulkner was born in New Albany, Mississippi. He stands as one of the most preeminent American writers of the twentieth century. His literary reputation included poetry, novels, short stories, and screenplays. Faulkner won two Pulitzer Prizes for Fiction and the Nobel Prize in Literature. â€Å"A Rose for Emily† is a short fascinating story written by William Faulkner and it was his first short story published in a national magazine. The story involved an ol d woman named Emily GriersonRead MoreA Rose For Emily By William Faulkner883 Words   |  4 PagesIn the timeless classic, â€Å"A rose for Emily† by William Faulkner we are introduced to Emily Grierson, a matured sheltered southern woman; born to a proud, aristocratic family presumably during the American Civil War. Through out the short story William Faulkner uses many literary devices such as symbolism, metaphors and allegory to play with â€Å"time† and how time reflects upon his main character Emily Grierson. Emily being one who denies the ability to see time for what it is linear and unchangeableRead MoreA Rose For Emily By William Faulkner1270 Words   |  6 PagesWilliam Faulkner’s short story â€Å"A Rose for Emily† thoroughly examines the life of a strange woman name Emily Grierson who lives in the town of Jefferson. If we examine â€Å"A Rose for Emily† in terms of formalist criticism, we see that the story dramatizes through setting, plot, characterization, and symbolism on how Miss Emily’s life is controlled by a possessive love she had for her father and lover. William Faulkner uses Emily’s life as the protagonist to examine from a formalist aspect. In orderRead MoreA Rose For Emily By William Faulkner1780 Words   |  8 PagesIn 1930, William Faulkner wrote a five-part story entitled â€Å"A Rose for Emily† that follows the life of a young woman named Miss Emily Grierson. Faulkner sets his story in the Old South, soon after the ending of America’s Civil War, and represents the decaying values of the Confederacy (Kirszner Mandell, 2013a, p. 244). One of these values which the text portrays quite often in â€Å"A Rose for Emily†, is the patriarchal custom of society viewing men as having more importance than their female counterpartsRead MoreA Rose For Emily By William Faulkner1277 Words   |  6 PagesMiss Emily Grierson, the main character in the strange short story â€Å"A Rose for Emily† written by William Faulkner. It would be best to examine her in a mental capacity as well as the circumstances that may affect her. Throughout the story, Miss Emily’s unpredictable and eccentric behavior becomes unusual, and the reader, like the townspeople in the story, is left to speculate how Miss Emily has spent years living and sleeping with the body of Homer Barron. An important quote from the story was that

Society’s Perception of Affirmative Action Free Essays

I both agree, and disagree with what the author is saying in this article. He starts by saying that our chances of succeeding are influenced by the generation of our family that came before us, and by our network of friends and acquaintances. He applies the term â€Å"social capital,† to this. We will write a custom essay sample on Society’s Perception of Affirmative Action or any similar topic only for you Order Now He then goes on to say that the government needs to take responsibility for ensuring that everyone has an equal opportunity get a job, be accepted into a university, or move up in their company. The next five paragraphs are spent arguing against â€Å"color-blind absolutism,† that is, the idea that we should ignore race altogether. To this point in the article, I could not agree more. I believe most rational thinking people learn from their parents, older siblings and even their extended families. They see the mistakes that their families made and want to do better. In my family for instance, I am the youngest of six children. My parents grew up in farming communities and had little or no education. I was the first in the family to go straight through high school and graduate. Only the four youngest of six children received a high school diploma or equivalent, and only myself and one of my brothers has had any education beyond that. I see this as a natural evolution that takes several generations. Some of my older siblings did not see the value of an education, or of planning your future and setting goals. While I saw the mistakes they made, it took me several years to realize that my success was dependent on setting goals, and the actions I took to achieve them. I also agree with the author assertion that society cannot be completely colorblind. We do not need to pretend that we are not different, we need to accept and embrace each other’s differences. We need to recognize and respect the each other’s cultures. Color and race will forever be used, just as height and weight are used to describe people. There is nothing wrong with acknowledging our differences, as long as we do not perceive those differences as negatives. I have to disagree with the remainder of the article. He has taken offense, apparently, to the perception that blacks need to be given preferential treatment to achieve a degree of success. I believe that he is arguing that affirmative action is demeaning to blacks, but what he should be arguing against is not affirmative action, but white society’s perception of affirmative action. Used as it was intended, affirmative action does not give minorities preferential treatment, it gives them an opportunity to compete with other applicants of equal qualifications. Human nature being what it is, opportunities do not always present themselves solely because of a persons skills, qualifications, or persistence. I recently read that a high percentage of positions are filled not through newspaper ads, or recruiting agencies, but through word of mouth. The best place for employers to look for new employees is often from their current employees. If this is true, then unless your work place is already racially diverse, most of your new hires are likely to come from similar racial or ethnic background as the majority of your workforce. Breaking this cycle takes a conscious effort. I believe this is the case in organized labor organizations. Perhaps there is no conscious effort to keep blacks or minorities out, but a desire to get one’s family and friends in, so that they too may enjoy the benefits of a good job. I believe I benefited from affirmative action when I joined the union apprenticeship program. Had it not been for the pressure applied on unions to diversify, there is little doubt in my mind that someone’s son or nephew would have received that position. And that person would most likely have been a white male. The intention of affirmative action is to level the playing field, not to tilt it in the direction of minorities. If it is improperly used, we must not blame the program; we must blame the people that are administering it. Universities should not lower standards, but encourage academically qualified minorities to apply and support programs that help increase the pool of qualified applicants. While it is true that an individuals success depends largely on that individuals own drive and self determination, history has taught us that things are not going to get better without some governmental intervention. How to cite Society’s Perception of Affirmative Action, Papers

Psychometric tests free essay sample

?Introduction If a business wants to be successful, there are a lot of aspects need to be concerned. Business objectives are one of the most essential factors. Therefore, a firm needs to be very careful on their recruitment and selection process because choosing the right candidates that fit for the business could help the firm to be more likely to achieve the goals. However, it is not easy to find the right candidates due to different organizations seeking for different qualities of employees. In some business, employers pay very high attention on the ethical behavior of employee, especially some jobs require candidates to be able to handle high responsibilities. Hence, employers want to eliminate liars, cheaters and thieves before the hiring. There are a variety of methods to do that, for example, behavior-based interviews and face-to-face interviews but nowadays employers are in favor of using psychometric testing because it could save the employers’ money and quicker to find out if the candidate is right for the business or not. In this essay, we are going to analyze different issues of psychometric testing. Issues Analysis Issue 1: When is it appropriate to use psychometric tests at the workplace? It is very important to understand when is the appropriate situation to use psychometric tests. First of all. according to Shawn (as cited in Humber, 2004), some tests could help the business to identify the group of right candidates with the qualities of what the firm needs, but it doesn’t tell who is the best in the group. Therefore, if a business wants to hire the best person with the qualities they need, they still need to go through another type of assessment with that group of person, using of the psychometric tests can only eliminate those who aren’t qualify but it cannot specifically tell you who is the best. Hence, the tests can be used at the start of recruitment and selection process for shortlisting in order to reduce the unnecessary time to interview the unqualified candidates. Unless, the company has used several different kind of tests to test the candidates, it would be more accurate and this is the only time that the company do not really need to use another kind of interview to make sure the person has the right abilities that the company need. But in order hands, using more tests to test the candidates might somehow cannot achieve the goal of cost-effectiveness, therefore it’s all depend on how much the company trusts psychometric tests in use of recruitment and selection process. There are only few people who can effectively deliver the use of those tests and clearly determine the differences between those tests and other traditional interviews methods (Gray-Roberts, 2010). Accordingly, if those organizations doesn’t understand how to effectively deliver those tests to help for the recruitment and selections section, it is just a waste of time and money. It is better for them to use back the traditional interviews methods unless they have sought for the opinions from the experts to guide them. Therefore, the tests can be used when it is truly effective to help the organizations to find the right candidates. Besides recruitment and selection, the psychometric tests can be also used to identify the current employees’ strengths and weaknesses in the workplace. Those tests could provide a scientifically sound way of identifying people’ strengths and weaknesses (De Vita, 2007). It’s a great way for the business to determine if there has any need of provide training for the employees and what tasks the employees are capable to deal with. For those reasons, Psychometric tests has its valuable part for the business. To be a methods of eliminate during selection process, or cost and time effectiveness, or even to understand the abilities of the internal employees. It an excellent method for most of the organization if it can be used effectively. Issue2: Are such tests valid? Reliable? Culturally Sensitive? The validity of those tests are one of the controversial topic. Employers might think if those tests are not valid, why do we waste our money on them? According to Whieddett’s analysis (1995), he claimed that psychometric testing has a certain valid role to play in recruitment and selection as long as the users clearly understand the theory behind the practice. To measure the validity of those tests, users need to identify the requirements and what characteristics are needed for the job to search for the right candidate, it is the essential first step for those tests. And then mix different tests together that suit with the selection, if they are correlate with the performance standards in the relevant job, that means the test are valid for use. Although we try our best to make those tests valid for us to find out the right candidates for the organization, Fowler(1997) points out that there are no tests could reach 100% validity, it couldn’t be the only sole basis of consideration when choosing the candidates, we still need to consider alongside with interview, previous employment history, references and the job-simulation exercises. For that reason, even psychometric has a certain extent of validity but when it comes to decision making, the data that have been collected from those tests could only use for reference to assist the selection and should only being seen as a supportive resources. Furthermore, it is the most concern factor and have a rather strong debate over many years. We would think: is it reliable for the company to use psychometric testing in recruitment and selection process? Employers might worry about that the candidates might not be honest when they are doing the tests. Corcoran (2005) stated that some candidate has been trying to ‘fake good’. They have got a high score on their tests but however it would be indicative of a mis-match because the candidates has trying to sell themselves too hard but when they come to the interview part, the employers could easily found out the differences from the results that the candidates provide. Therefore, still it is more about assisting the decision of hiring and simplifying recruitment and selection process but cannot be the primary resources. The reliability of psychometric testing is more concerns about the honesty of candidates and how the user views about the testing but validity aspect is more concern about the effective use of type of questions and choices (Kendall-Raynor 2010). The reliability of the tests are based on the degree of how employers trust the results. They are not highly reliable due to the respondents might â€Å"fake† and choose the favorable answer to suit the organization’s need when they are not. Moreover, there are also issues concerning about culture sensitive. There is a limited cultural contexts when using the psychometric testing on recruitment and selection. Dr Elcock (as cited in Clark, 2003) claimed that western cultures are more pound of the individuality but some other cultures are more collective. Also, different companies have different working cultures and background. For example, a Chinese Company is providing a new position offer and using Psychometric tests. If a western person with a suitable ability to suit for the company but the testing results coming back stated he is an ‘individuality person’, as a Chinese company, they would not be hire this person because they are not collective person. It would causing discrimination due to the culture differences. Therefore, company hires people also need to consider range of culture questions. Especially most of the workplace environment are very diverse nowadays, they need to make sure those test are adjusted and should be able to apply on different culture. Issue3: What are the potential ethical dilemmas associated with psychological testing for employment purposes? Maintaining an ethical work practices and making decisions considering ethical factors are very essential for a business. Therefore, when we choose to use psychological testing to use in recruitment and selection process, we have to consider if there is any ethical dilemmas that we are facing. In my opinion, one the ethical dilemmas is after the candidates have done their tests and the company could assess if they are suitable for the company, but beside that, the company could also see through what kind of person the candidate is. Does the company really need to access too deep of one person privacy and is it very really that important to hire a person? Levine(1971) have defined privacy as necessary space to escape the perpetual bombardment of urban life. From that views, we could conclude that the company have no right and should not access too deep of one individual personal life. More even they haven’t hired that person yet, what is the point for a company to know too much about the person? Therefore, if a company wants to use the psychometric test for recruitment and selection process, they should really make sure they have pick the right tests and they don’t involve too much questions answer about the personal life. The tests are better more about concerning the abilities of working and performance quality. However, for some financial companies with higher requirements because they are all about dealing with money, they could still involve a bit of needed personnel information but keeping the less maybe the better. Another issue concerning is about the method of providing feedback to the candidates. Normally, the candidates would love to know what and why the company hire or not hire them. When the companies are going to reply to these candidates, they should really be careful when they provide the feedback. There are chances that the company might misunderstand the results of the tests and they have indicated that person with a personality which he is not. Therefore, a company should only provide feedback about what these tests are testing on the job performance content but do not talk about an individual personality. We should only take them as one of the test and should not only making decision based on only this part. Talking about discrimination, another issue concerning is that there might have discrimination involved in using psychological testing on recruitmet and selection process. As we stated at the cultural sensitive part, cultural differences might cause impact on those tests if they are not suitable for use for people come from different cultures. Company should not only relies on the statistical analysis alone, they might probably not accurate and incur human error. Many HR practitioners, however, have continued to use personality testing with an optimistic and enduring faith in its ability to discriminate between good and poor job candidates. (Scroggins, Thomas Morris, 2008). They have also pointed out that those with those personality tests, they could have the chance that unable to predict the job performance of the candidates. Therefore, if those tests can only tell us what is the personality of the candidates but not the job performance, why are we bother to use them? It would cause more problems if we only just rely on those tests. Also, hire a person base on their personality can be seen as a discrimination. Same as age, height, races, those kind of unchangeable factors, and a person might only be introvert. If a company choose their candidates base on this kind of personnel quality, I think it can be considered as one of the discrimination actions. A firm should really think deeply when they are using those tests, it can be touch off a bit of legal aspect. They should make sure they have seen everyone equally, otherwise they might carelessly break the law. Recommendations From the results of the issue analysis about psychometric test, we have identify when is the appropriate use, the validity and the reliability of the tests. Also, we have already looked through the culture sensitive issues and ethical dilemmas that are associated with psychometric testing. Therefore, I would like to make the recommendations on what I think if a company wants to use the psychometric testing for the recruitment and selection process. In my opinion, I would not recommend a company use this kind of tests as the unilateral factors when they really want to find the right candidates. Although these tests have been widely used in recently years and the creators also claimed that it would easily help the business to identify if a person is what the business needs or not, there are not enough evidence that telling us the tests are valid and reliable. A human mind sometimes cannot be expand through an only piece of paper. Therefore, I would rather prefer the traditional interviewing methods because it’s more reliable and can also interact with the person face to face. Also, some qualities of most of the company requirements are needed might not be able to accessed in those tests but a face to face interview can let the employers know more about the person through communication. For example, the tests could be limited to access about the grooming of the person but you can find it out in a face to face interview and more importantly communication. I was wondering how these tests could test about one individual ability to communicate and it’s one of the most important factors of most of the business. Hence, as the whole analysis continually mentions, psychometric could only use as a secondary sources when hiring a new employee. A working performance bases on the ability to handle the real life situation, psychometric testing can only uses for a references but it doesn’t tell us well enough. Also, using those tests might mistakenly causing some cultural issues which might also lead to discrimination issues. Therefore, a firm need to be very careful on the questions which they want to ask about the candidates to make sure they do not jump into those issues. I recommend that the suitable situation of the company to use psychometric testing for recruitment and selection process is when they have a very large group of person that need to be accessed then it would be an excellent tool to use. Conclusion In conclusion, psychometric testing is widely used in the nowadays business recruitment and selection process but it still has its limitations to use. Companies need to be very carefully when they want to use psychometric testing and make sure understand what kind of information those tests can provide them. Also, if a company cannot deliver the tests effectively, it is more recommended that they should use the typical interviews methods. Moreover, the insufficient evidence of the validity and reliability of those tests are needed to improve. They are really based on the design of the test and the questions that ask about the candidates. A bad testing could results wasting of money and time. Therefore, they could only been used as a secondary resources or references. Companies also need to understand the cultural sensitive, discrimination and personal privacy issues which associated with this type of interview, otherwise it may break the law and giving unnecessary impact for the company.

Monday, May 4, 2020

A case Study on Strategic Resource of Rio Tinto Free Samples

Question: Describe about Snapshot of Rio Tino,recent history and evolution of the "Mine of the Future" concept and Intersection of strategy, technology and mining of resources heading? Answer: Introduction: The report deals with the strategic resource management, practise and its importance in mining industry. The strategic resource and operation management has become one of the vital disciplines in several organizations. The ultimate purpose of managing strategic resource and operation is to help an organization to increase its performance through improved efficiency, effectiveness and flexibility. In these dynamic days, the essence of resource management is essential for running a business, strengthen firms competitive position, satisfying its customers expectation and achieving the performance targets. The research basically conducted on Rio Tinto, which is a reputed international mining group, headquartered in UK. The primary aim of the study is to provide a clear insight about the review of the tangible assists of the firm and its value chain analysis in order to achieve strategic outcomes with respect to the mining company, Rio Tinto. The study also intends to reflect the number of social and environmental issues that are relies in the heart of sustainable business strategy. I. Snapshot of Rio Tinto: The name Rio Tinto is well known throughout the globe primarily for its exquisite diamond that founds in one of their mining operation in Africa. The company has started its operation in the Great Britten and now it is spread evenly around the world. In mining operation, Rio Tinto is a biggest name and was made its position after their merger with CRA in 1995 (Fisher, 2012). Rio Tinto has been regarded as the one of the most resourceful company and has set their image as extremely powerful international organization in the global market. Major products of the company are copper, gold, diamonds, iron, industrial metals, thermal, uranium and aluminium. Presently the operation of the group has segmented in various countries in the world, for instance, Canada, Europe, Indonesia, South Africa, Mongolia, US, Australia and U. Western Australia is the key region of the companys portfolio. In this region, the group has 15 iron ore mines, a 1,700 kilometre rail networks, three port facilities and related infrastructure (Rio Tinto Australia, 2015). The developed infrastructure allows Rio to expand in this region significantly. As several mining companies are presence in Australia, Rio has got a golden chance to develop at a rapid pace in recent years. Apart from that, North America (countries such as Canada and US) is also a vital region of the group and it holds for 30% assets of Rio. These regions have a politically stable environment and well-developed infrastructure. It produces copper, coal, borates, ore, diamond and gold. The rest of the companys assets are located in South America (4%), Africa (6%), Indonesia (1%) and Europe (4%). Figure 1: Rio Tinto's Graphical Area Distribution (Source: Australia Mining Review, 2014) Value Chain of Rio Tinto: A value chain analysis is a chain of activities that operates a firm to deliver high quality product or service to its customers. The value chain process in Rio begins with exploration and goes through the several sections with high investment, high risk to get rich natural resources, low profit margin and so on and ultimately focus on refining the extraction of precious metals (for graphical representation of Rios value chain procedure, refer to Appendix 1). The margin of the mine tailing recircling is upward moving as it is low risk, enough raw materials are available in the company and no new burdens arise (IBM, 2009). Value creation occurs predominantly in the productive stage of the business. Market forces: Regarding the iron ore market, there is a significant demand especially from the countries like China and India due to their urbanization and industrialization strategy. At the same time, there is an increasing competition between the giant iron ore mines, especially between Fortescue Metals, Rio Tinto and BHP Billion (Rio Tinto Innovation, 2013). Rio Tintos Mine of the Future programme is the step ahead towards adopting high competition and increasing demand. The group has adopted Mine of the Future programme for developing fully autonomous operated mine strategy. Strategies Rio Tinto seeks to invest and operate in long-term, large and cost competitive mine industries that are not driven by the choice of commodity, rather the quality of opportunities (Rio Tinto Iron Ore Pilbara, 2015). With this policy, the group wants to work in an ethical and social responsible manner to enhance social wellbeing, sustainable development and economic prosperity within their strong governance system. II. Recent history and evolution of the Mine of the Future concept: Recently, Rio Tinto has started an innovative program, namely Mine of the future, which mainly focuses on creating extraordinary levels of automation and remote the operation in the mining industry. The strategic intent of the program is to revolutionise new way of mining that has not been attempt in the past centuries. The program was started on 18 December 2008 and aimed to reduce the carbon footprint in order to provide greater efficiency and improved management at lowest cost (Fisher, 2012). Rio Tinto believes that, such quality condition will help them to retain and attract superior quality staffs in the competitive labour market. The Mine of the future is a foreword looking strategy of Rio group where they are looking beyond their current existence and thinking about the ways through which they can implement better management strategy in future. Grant Thorne, the executive for technology and innovation group of Rio Tinto has said that, they always aims to provide a substantial safety, efficiency and predictability to their workers and the Mine of the future program is crucial steps taken ahead by them to satisfy these obligations. The Mine of the future project was first launched in 2008. By the April of this year, a mass of robot army were deployed in the Pilbara region of Western Australia to move 100 million tonnes travelled to more that 1 million kilometre. Moving materials by using robot army is one of the key components of Rios strategy (Engineers Australia, 2015). It is effective to reduce cost, increase efficiency, improve health, safety and environmental efficiency. The program is all about emphasised on finding most advanced ways to extract minerals from the deep mine within the earth and thereby reduce environmental impacts. With the strategy of Mine of the future, Rio Tinto has successfully met the expectation of various customers from emerging developed countries around the globe. Rio Tinto seeks to become global mining leader by achieving and maintaining sectoral leadership in terms of operational excellence, innovation, sustainable development and innovation. The group has successfully carried out its operations in the global scale by meeting and satisfying the needs of their customers in various section of the world. In the recent years, they have the way we work approach in order to achieve economic prosperity, social wellbeing, improved government system and sustainable development (Australia Mining Review, 2014). In order to manage their business in the international market, Rio follows some basic principle in their operation and they are maintaining internal performance with external drivers, realistic achievements with sustainable stretch, including corporate value to maximise shareholders return and transparency in their operation management. They believe that all kinds of injuries and incidents are preventable. They have created an environment where all employees have sufficient knowledge and desire to work safely and can go their home at the end of the day. Implementation of the safety programmes in their operational process currently being rolled out with a particular focus to achieve global supply chain management. Another aspect in their operational strategy is positive financial delivery (Itnews for Australian Business, 2015). Majority of the Rios assets provides positive return in respect to other mining industries. Rio has achieved this through constant delivery of the business improvement programs, application of the latest technology and investment assets in the lifecycle. Rio Tintos workforce is one of the crucial strategic resources that the company manage properly to establish its position in the global market. Rio believes that, attracting, developing and retaining the skilled employees is critical to improve business performance. An integrated talent sourcing, total reward architecture etc. are some example that Rio used to optimise the value of its workforce. The company joined with international rail specialists to implement worlds first long deployment of haul less driver train (McGagh, 2012). Under the Mine of the Future program, Rio first started to test autonomous trucks and drillers. It also established remote operation centre at Perth to manage operation at Pilbara mines which is 1,500 kilometre away. The company also signed with Komatsu for 150 autonomous car deployments. Within 2014, Rio has deployed autonomous drilling system (ADS) and autonomous haulage system (AHS) trucks in their three mine site and expected to spread out the uses strategically. Figure 2: Innovation Time line for Mine of the Future program (Source: Garvey, 2013) III. Status of the components of the Mine of the Future Iron Ore project: Rio Tintos Mine of the Future Iron Ore Project is concentrated in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. Rios Pilbara operation comprise three shipping terminals at two ports, 13 mines and a rail network spanning around 1,400 kilometre. They export iron ore from their port on Western Australia to Eastern Europe and Asia. The development programme that Rio has adopted to expand global market for their product includes development of new mines and expanding key infrastructure that allow them to transport their product in market. In 2009, their Pilbara operation was accounted for more than 170 million tonnes of their total production (Rio Tinto Sustainable development Report, 2015). It implies that, from the year 2000, Rio has expanded their capacity up to 220 million tonnes per year and this is all because of their Pilbara Iron Ore operation. Now, Rio Tinto has a vision to establish Mine for the Future programme to improve the ways of mining via remote and automation. They have chose n Pilbara to fulfil their vision, as this is a part of their current ore extraction mines. The vision of the project was to transform mining into low effects, i.e. mining which has very low-level impact to the environment. It will also improve the health and safety of the workers by using robot technology. Figure 3: Mine of the Future (Source: Rio Tinto, 2006) In the current state of rising demand, competitive pressure, decreasing productivity and skill shortage and scarcity of resources, mining companies are upgrading their operations. The operational excellence is one of the crucial strategies that mining companies are trying to implement for achieving operational efficiency, high operational performance, improved process and cost control. In this context, Mine of the Future is an example of operational excellence that Rio executed along with their supply chain management to maximise their shareholders value (Rio Tinto, 2006). However, Rio needs to be very cautious about the negative environmental impacts that it imposes on its stakeholders, especially on the customers and local communities by ignoring their rights and interests. Now a days, mining companies are trying to get benefit from integration and coordination of all supply chain activities flawless process. The supply chain activity includes everything, from product development to production, sourcing, logistics as well as marketing. Effective supply chain management is likely to fulfil Rios strategic intent, for example, production at a right cost via high performing leans, maximizing portfolio via supply chain capabilities and value driven growth via supply chain synergies. Mine of the Future is the innovative execution of mining process that emphasis on end-to-end information technologies and cutting-edge technology to extract iron ore and minerals deep within the earth while reducing the environmental impacts. The four major component of Mine of the Future programme are Automated Drilling System (ADS), Autonomous Haulage System (AHS), Driverless Train System (DTS) and Operation centre (Rio Tinto Marine, 2015). Figure 4: Components of Mine of the Future program (Source: Rio Tinto Marine, 2015) The Operation centre (OC) or Perth control centre has the facilities that enable Rio to operate all the mines, rail systems and ports from a single location. It receives a wide amount of data from various sources including mine site based CCTV cameras and voice mobile radio channels that facilitates the production and transportation system to be monitored by OC. More than 400 operators are employed to manage the entire Pilbara iron ore network. OC uses a especial software that analyse the complex data set and creates a user-friendly 3D display of mine that helps the supervisor and controller to form an interaction with the mine activities. OC is not only important to flow information into Iron Ore supply chain, but also crucial to provide scalability to the company through big data analysis. Mine site based operational activities includes loading and haulage, drilling and blasting, process and wash plants, processing and stockpiling etc. At the mine site, each fleet constitutes trucks and loader units. Currently, there are 53 AHS trucks to move high-grade ore to the load-out sites and processing sites. Each AHS truck is capable to carrying 295 tonnes per load. These trucks are equipped with high-precisions GPS, radars, obstacle detection system and wireless network communication. The radars helps to move the truck quickly and safely whereas the obstacle detection system helps to reduce the speeds if required. These trucks send information to OC and in turn receive information from OC regarding the speed and target course. According to McGagh (2012), the AHS trucks extended the tyre life, enhanced the haul cycle time, lowered maintenance cost and reduced fuel uses. These benefits suggest that, AHS trucks not enhanced the overall productivity, but also it reduced some envi ronmental and social issues. Rio Tinto operates three autonomous drills at the Pilbara mine site. The automated blast-hole drill system enable an operator to operate multiple drilling by using a single console at a particular location. Human operator will control the first drilling and gradually the control will move to the OC in Perth. The ADS reduce the health and safety concerns of the workers and improve efficiency in blasting and drilling operations. It improve the recovery of the ore body by reducing the amount of waste, more predictable and consistent outcomes from blasting and provides more productive workforce as a result of remote control operations. Port based operational activities comprises the rail networks that transforms the Iron Ore from mine site to ship-loading, car-dumping and stockpiling for export. They have used Driverless Train System as a substitute of existing train system in which each train drawn out over 3 kilometres in length (YouTube, 2015). The loading capacity of these trains is same as the 250 cars. It enhanced the iron ore carrying capacity and improved the environmental impacts through greater flexibility in train scheduling, reducing delivery cycle time, lowering the energy costs, removal of driver change overtime and reduction in the carbon dioxide emission for each unit of iron ore production. It expected to complete their driverless project within 2015. For the development of remote control rock breaker, remote shipping loading and run-of-mine bin for ore processing, Rio is now working with Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO). Similarly, the teleportation of the loading process enables the operators to work beyond the line-of-sight with video image and access the additional sensors to observe the production process. Another developing project of Rio under Mine of the Future program is Excellence centre and Peak-float. Excellence centre allow the team member to enhance productivity, take better decision, recue cost by virtual collaboration with the experts of the organization and access real time data from the operation. On the other hand, Peak-float is high performing computer program that float condition to ensure maximum mineral recovery (Rio Tinto Sustainable development Report, 2015). Before Mine of the Future program, Rio Tinto has been using an incremental innovation procedure along the life cycle of their business, such as developing first and second phase of the Pilbara mine operation. However, since 2008, it has undertaken the Mine of the Future program to bring a change in their innovation strategy and make it significantly different from their as usual business process. The initial observation of Mine of the Future program suggests that, Rio Tinto has initiated the program on the basis of their strong innovation capabilities and financial resources. They believe that, Mine of the Future project will provide them a sustainable competitive advantage as well as help them to deliver superior value to the stakeholders. According to the official website of Rio Tinto, the values that Rio offers to the stakeholders includes enhancing safety to their workers, reducing cost to shareholders, eliminating waste and improve overall equipment effectiveness, reducing the environmental impacts to the community where they works and improve quality of the product and dependability of the customers (YouTube, 2015). Rio has underlined a strong commitment to deliver its shareholders value and maintaining capital discipline. The world class portfolio of their high quality assets help them to maintain a strong EBIT margin and are in a well positioned to generate free cash flow. However, from the supply chain management aspect it can be said that, Mine of the Future program of Rio completely focuses on producing and delivering high quality product but fails to provide emphasis on the supplier and customer level performance. The non- financial matrix of production process includes quality of the product, production cost, delivery of flexibility and reliability, the speed of delivery and so on (Rio Tinto, 2006). The Mine of the Future program has successfully contributes in the aspect of speed of delivery, cost and quality of production and delivery reliability. In this context, the Relational View (RV) can be discussed. The Relational View defines relationship as a potential source of superior performance (Engineers Australia, 2015). In the light of RV, it can be said that, if Rio Tinto could establish a supply chain management procedure utilising the big data, it would greatly assists to form a stable and long-term relationship with their suppliers and the customers. One significant point from the study is that, Mine of the Future may results in low cost producer and over supply that could impacts the global iron or market price, gain competitive advantage in the market and become low cost producer in t he international field. IV. Sustainable mining and logistics within Rio Tinto: For the mining company the license to operate is under the scrutiny as countries have given a great emphasis on the health and safety aspect and social rights for the local communities. So, it is important for Rio to establish honest agreement with its stakeholders and determine a commitment to minimize environmental impacts. According to the report of US Environmental Protection Agency, the supply chain accounts major green house emissions (Rio Tinto Australia, 2015). Thus, majority of the companies are looking for sustainable supply chain to ensure their long-term existence. Beside other factors, todays supply chain management also includes the environmental and social issues. Figure 5: Pilbara Iron Ore Operation: Supply Chain with Sustainability aspects (Source: Rio Tinto Australia, 2015) The business procedure of Rio Tinto is closely related to the environment and local community where it works. Thus, it is solely responsible to develop sustainability in its business procedure to meet needs of the present generation without hampering the ability of the future generation to meet their demands. According to McGagh (2012), Rio Tinto is highly committed to sustainability in its supply chain management with a complete focus on environmental stewardship, social wellbeing, economic prosperity, safety and strong governance (Rio Tinto Innovation, 2013). The supply chain of Rio Tinto starts with procurement of the facilities that are necessary for its operations (as depicted in the figure 5). In their procurement principle, Rio Tinto clearly mentioned the minimum standard of health, ethical, environmental, anti-corruption practice and human rights that every supplier needs to meet or exceed. The logistic system of Rio Tinto comprise (1) resource development including exploration, assessment and planning, (2)mine operation encompassing drilling, loading, blasting, stockpiling, haulage and loading out and (3) rail transportation including ship loading and car damping (refer to Appendix 2). At every stage of supply chain, the company is highly committed to manage the risk sustainably and deliver positive value to their shareholders. Goal of the company for safety is zero harm as it recognises that healthy workers are essential for the business growth. Rio also believes that, respect to the employees is the central for creating harmonious workplace (Fisher, 2012). So, the company has developed a standard policies and guideline related to occupational health, safety and human rights. The human rights policy of Rio Tinto covers intimidation, child labour, sexual harassment and discrimination (Australia Mining Review, 2014). Regarding the environment and communities, it has been viewed that Rio Tinto respects the diversity of the indigenous people, their history, tradition and cultures. Hence, the company has developed a standard community policy to promote collaborative engagement at local, regional, national and international levels. In order to improve environmental management, Rio has developed several opportunities, for instance, sustainable water management at every stage of mineral exploration, protecting biodiversity, mine development and evaluating the divestment of assets. The management plan also developed to ensure sustainable economic outcome after site operation. Due to cost pressure, competing for resource and corporate social responsibility (CSR) issues in the mining industry, Rio has turned its business process from incremental innovation to step change innovation (IBM, 2009). The Mine of the Future program mostly focuses on the logistic system of the mine operation. Under this program, AHS trucks is used for loading and hauling process, ADS is used for drilling and blasting and autonomous train is used to move iron ore from mine site to port. The program also offers benefits to the shareholders in terms of improved health and safety, reduced environmental impacts and increased productivity. The workforce of Rio Tinto gets health and safety benefits through reduced risk in several segments, for instance, reduce human exposure to equipment operations and geotechnical risk, reduced incidence of accidents etc. Mine of the Future program has substitute labour with the capital to achieve better production at minimal risk. Thus, it has reduced number of employees and thereby labour cost, costs of housing employees at mine site and environmental impacts. In addition to that, the program also has eliminated some sources of inefficiencies such as unnecessary fuel consumption, unnecessary tear etc. in a more controlled and precious manner (YouTube, 2015). The program also effectively reduces the environmental footprints by consuming less energy in the business process. On the delivery stage, Rio provides ocean freight service to its customers that generally focus on both operational standard and environmental aspect of ocean transformation. Hence, it can be said that, Rio Tinto is operating in a sustainable supply chain management and provide major emphasis to maximise the shareholder value. They have likely to be achieved the supply chain sustainability by engaging their suppliers to ensure sustainable performance rather than merely a compliance. However, no data found in the literature section that implies that Rio have an intelligent supply chain system. It can improve their supply chain management system by taking better decision about their performance and more collaboration with the partners, suppliers and other key stakeholders. V. Intersection of strategy, technology and mining of resources heading: Mine of the Future is the initial step of Rio in achieving smatter mining state. So, there are some key issues that the company needs to address at the intersection of strategy, technology and mining of their resource heading. These issues are corporate social responsibility (CSR), business model innovation, process improvement, assets management, governance and workforce, process improvements and information collaboration (Rio Tinto Iron Ore Pilbara, 2015). Figure 6: Future business challenge of Rio Tinto (Source: Rio Tinto Iron Ore Pilbara, 2015) Corporate social responsibility (CSR): In the present days, CSR becomes pervasive and formal concept in the business context. Under Mine of the Future program, every machine can carried out its tasks with minima external control or automatically. Despite of several initiatives in improving environmental conditions, environmental issues like reduction in energy, soil erosion, surface water risk, dusts and soil waste still exists. At the same time, this program has reduced the mine related jobs for the residuals and local communities, which provide a adverse impact on the local economic activities, especially on Aboriginal Australians. The unskilled and semi-skilled workers are started to disappear with the adoption of remote operation technology and roll-out of autonomous (Itnews for Australian Business, 2015). Hence, Rio Tinto needs to provide more emphasis on these social and environmental issues. Business model innovation: The business model of Rio Tinto is designed to achieve its strategic intent and primarily focuses on delivering value for its shareholders. However, in the present competitive business environment, it is very important to that business model should be flexible with the dynamic market conditions and customers demand. In other word, business model not only needs to focus on creating value for their customers but also on the relationship building. Even though Rio is delivering added value to its customer via Mine of the Future program, it lacks to build a substantial relationship with the suppliers, tautomers and other business partners along with their supply chain. Hence, it still needs to work on that to ensure long-life expandable operations using their data intelligence system. Process improvement: The Mine of the Future program of Rio Tinto integrates remote operation technology and mine automation with huge capital investment. This program has been designed to promote greater efficiency in productivity as well as minimise the production cost. Hence, it is very important to measure the outcome of the process constantly and in real time to ensure best possible outcomes in efficiency, performance, energy consumption, wear and tear and longevity in the use of expensive machineries (Rio Tinto Marine, 2015). According to Garvey (2013), six sigma is very fundamental change that Rio has implemented in the structure of their work to actively engage, involve and communicate with their people. Therefore, Rio needs to address more improvement process like six sigma. Governance and workforce, process improvements: The existing organizational structure of Rio is characterised by five-business-unit structure in which unit compose of five stratums between the managing director level and mining staff level (YouTube, 2015). It has been reported that, regarding the Mining of the Future program Rio will change its future workforce requirements and the ways in which the managed their workforce. It has the potential to remove the management program from the existing five strata as large-scale operation may leads to reduction in the operation roles. However, it can also emerge new roles to fulfil various competency requirements, such as aptitude for using information technology, skills and knowledge in science and mathematics and so on. Thus, Rio needs to reorganize its operational structure and make it aligned with the remotely controlled autonomous operations. Improvement in Information collaboration process: Under the Mine of the Future program, if any kind of machine failure occurs on the mine site, sensor on that machine automatically alert a control room 160 kilometres away (Fisher, 2012). Then the supervisor of the room assembles a virtual team to discuss the problem and finds the best possible solution. Experts from different mines are get connected in the real time as well as a team of technical support expert and a maintenance repair person. In order to form effective collaboration among these groups, the real time information is very important component. In addition to that, real time information also plays an crucial role for future supply chain management process. The function of supply chain management process can be hampered due to distorted information flow up and down. In order to avoid these issues, improvement of information integration and collaboration process will be the future challenge for Rio Tinto. References: Australia Mining Review. (2014). With Andrew Harding Iron Clad Future. Retrived from: Engineers Australia. (2015). Big data results in big savings for Rio Tinto. Retrieved from: Fisher, B., (2012). Autonomous and Remote Operation Technologies in the Mining Industry. Retrived from: Garvey, P. (2013). Rios autonomous haul trucks quietly improving productivity in Pilbara. The Australian Business Review. Retrieved from: IBM. (2009). Envisioning the Future of Mining. Retrived from: Itnews for Australian Business. (2015). Rio Tinto grows driverless truck fleet . Retrived from:,rio-tinto-grows-driverless-truck-fleet.aspx McGagh, J. (2012). Mine of the future: Rio Tintos Innovation Pathway. Retrieved from: Rio Tinto Australia. (2015). Australia Proud of our rich heritage in Australia. Retrived from: Rio Tinto Innovation. (2013). Paper Presents at the meeting of American Chamber of Commerce, Melbourne, Australia. Retrieved from: Rio Tinto Iron Ore Pilbara. (2015). Western Australian community investment. Retrieved from: Rio Tinto Marine. (2015). Rio Tinto Marine Website. Retrived from: Rio Tinto Sustainable development Report. (2015). Iron Ore WA. Retrieved from: Rio Tinto. (2006). The way we Buy (our statement of procurement practice). Retrieved From: YouTube. (2015). Mine of the Future People and Technology working together. Retrieved from: YouTube. (2015). Rio Tinto Iron Ore Autonomous Haulage System (Mine of the Future). Retrieved from: Appendix 1: Value Chain of Rio Tinto (Source: IBM, 2009) Appendix 2: Logistic System of Iron Ore at Pilbara mine site (Source: Fisher, 2012)